An ideological perspective might note, by contrast, the resemblance of those secure warm homes to the Victorian middle-class nursery, and comment upon the escapism of the response to the materialism of the wide world. Belsey also suggests that from the liberal humanist perspective people are seen as the sole authors of their own actions, and hence of their own history, and meaning is the product of their individual intentions. In fact, she argues, the reverse is true: people are not the authors of their own history, they are rather the products of history itself or, less deterministically, engaged in a dialectical relationship with their history — both product and producer.
Belsey takes the argument one step further, suggesting that expressive realism operates to support liberal humanism, and thus, effec- tively, to support capitalism itself. Ideological perspectives insist, in contrast, that texts are constructions in and of ideology, generally operating unconsciously, and it is the job of the critic to deconstruct the work in order to expose its underlying ideological nature and role.
He distinguishes three levels of ideology. The work of Edward Said draws our attention to the ways in which the assumptions of imperi- alism are often buried so deep in the dominant culture as to be invisible to those who live within it. It was only after the successful resistance of the colonised which led to the throwing off of the imperialist yoke that such perspectives began to penetrate the discourses of the dominant culture, leading us to look anew at the ideological assumptions of much of our cultural product. Within that product a number of things can occur. The first is that imperialist assump- tions are built into the text quite overtly, with imperialist and racist sentiments put explicitly into the mouths of the characters see Cullingford Second, the ground of ideological assumption can mean that the evidence is there in the text, but that commentary has not noted it.
All three were in bathing things, but it was hard to see where bathing things ended and mud began. The savages. The operation of imperialism does not occur just at the material level of physical occu- pation and subsequent economic annexation. It also, Said suggests, operates at a cultural and ideological level. The arrival of the white man in the form of the good doctor and his animal helpers plays out the initial colonisation of imperialism his ostensible reason for being there is to cure the monkeys of some mysterious disease which is decimating the population — the eeriest of pre-echoes of the AIDS story of the final years of the twentieth century.
The next stage, in which Prince Bumpo wishes to be like the hero of The Sleeping Beauty, then demonstrates the operation of European cultural hegemony, as, in order to become such a hero, Bumpo himself has to turn white. Dolittle, with some misgivings it has to be said, for it is to be a painful process, bleaches his face, but does not even attempt to sort out problems that might ensue. Instead he appropriates the natural resources of the country in the form of the pushmi-pullyou and, in a classic trope of de-colonising irresponsibility, sails away leaving Bumpo to his fate, commenting only that the whiteness will probably wear off in time.
In both the above examples, imperialism was encapsulated in both the language of the text and the structures of the narratives. In other examples imperialism is silenced. Finally there are those texts which raise the issues of xenophobia, racism and imperi- alism and succeed in challenging prevailing ideological assumption. Bradford suggests that it is in particular those books that are about boundaries that bring out such issues, and offers an analysis of some Australian and New Zealand fiction to make her point. Each of these have their particular ideological formulations which can be identified in terms of the particular group that is othered.
As postcolo- nial readings can help us to understand the imperialist ideologies that characterise particular texts, so anti-racist readings, class-conscious readings, feminist readings and queer readings can help us to understand the racist, paternalist, class-biased and homo- phobic ideologies that also characterise texts. Such readings, however, also have the ability to penetrate the surface of the text to demonstrate the ambiguity underneath, as I have attempted to do in my readings of popular literature Sarland He draws attention to the roots of popular fiction in folk tale, which had political content which survived somewhat subdued into the written forms.
Leeson thus raises a question-mark over the perhaps somewhat more determinist analysis offered by Belsey and Eagleton. At its simplest an almost directly didactic relationship was assumed. I do not suggest that anyone, even then, thought it would be quite that simple, and since the s there has been something of a revolution in our understandings of how readers are constructed by texts. Iser had also drawn attention to the fact that texts brought with them a cultural repertoire which had to be matched by the reader. Macherey brought Freudian perspectives to bear on ways in which ideology operated in hidden ways in the text, and by extension also in the reader, and Belsey drew insights from Althusser, Derrida and Lacan to further explore the ways in which the subjectivity of the reader is ideologically constructed.
As such they are seen as beings with a privileged perception, untainted by culture. John Stephens engages in a detailed analysis of a number of books to show how they produce ideological constructions of implied child readers. He concentrates particularly on narrative focalisa- tion and the shifts, moves and gaps of narrative viewpoint and attitude, showing how such techniques imply certain ideological assumptions and formulations, and construct implied readers who must be expected to share them.
Implied readers and real readers When real readers are introduced into the equation, however, the picture becomes more complicated, and it is here that the educational discourse overlaps with the discourse about fiction per se, for it is almost always within school that evidence is gathered and intervention is proposed. The introduction of real readers has another effect, for it throws into relief some of the more determinist assumptions of the analysis offered above. The evidence comes under three headings: identification, the polysemous text, and contradic- tory readings.
Identification The notion of identification has been a contentious issue for some time. Readers are thus ideologically constructed by their identification with the character. Harding offered an alternative formulation of the reader as an observer in a more detached and evaluative spectator role, and both Geoff Fox and Robert Protherough suggest that such a straightforward notion as identification does not account for the evidence that they collected from children and young people.
The ideological initiatives of the s presupposed an identification model of response, and subsequent commentators are still most fearful of what happens should a young person engage in unmediated identification with characters constructed within ideologically undesirable formulations. The polysemous text Roland Barthes alerted us to the notion that texts operated through a plurality of codes that left them open to a plurality of readings, and Umberto Eco offers the most extensive analysis of that plurality.
Texts, it seems, are contradictory, and so evidently are readings. Contradictory readings Macherey , and Eagleton both assume that the world is riven with ideological conflict. To expect texts to resolve that conflict is mistaken, and the ideological contradictions that inform the world will also be found to inform the fictional texts that are part of that world. Some texts, Eagleton argues, are particularly good at revealing ideolog- ical conflict, in that they sit athwart the dominant ideology of the times in which they were written. Eagleton looks to examples from the traditional adult canon to make his point.
Jack Zipes takes the argument one stage further and suggests that popular work too will be found to be contradictory. He links popular literature and film with its precur- sors in folk tale and romance, and suggests that it offers the hope of autonomy and self-determination, in admittedly utopian forms, while at the same time affirming domi- nant capitalist ideology. In other words, while the closure of popular texts almost always reinforces dominant ideology, in the unfolding narratives there are always countering moves in which it is challenged.
While this analysis is still essentially theoretical, supporting evidence emerges from studies that have been done of readers themselves. The focus has been on popular fiction and on teenagers. Popular fiction causes liberal educationalists particular concern since it appears to reinforce the more reactionary values in society, particularly so far as girls and young women are concerned.
The research evidence, however, uncovers a complex picture of the young seeking ways to take control over their own lives, and using the fiction that they enjoy as one element in that negotiation of cultural meaning and value. Gemma Moss showed how teenage girls and boys were able to turn the popular forms of, respectively, the romance and the thriller to their own ends. She found unhelpful some of the more determinist ideological analysis that suggested that, by their reading of romance, girls were constructed as passive victims of a patriarchal society.
The girls who liked the romances were tough, worldly-wise working-class girls who were not subservient to their male counterparts. However, Moss shows how the teenage girls she was working with were able to take the form into their own writing and use it to negotiate and dramatise their concerns with and experience of femininity and oppression.
Romance offered them a form for this activity that was not necessarily limiting at all. Christian-Smith and her colleagues a explore similar dualities and demonstrate the complexity of the problem. The eleven-year-old girls who are reading them, however, saw the baby-sitters making money that they then used to achieve their own ends. They saw the baby-sitters shaping the action around them so that things worked out the way they wanted them to.
They saw girls their age acting as agents in their own right. Cherland with Edelsky 32 By contrast, horror, Cherland argues, which these girls were also beginning to read, casts women in increasingly helpless roles. Research into the meanings that young people actually make of the books they are reading demonstrates the plural nature of the texts we are dealing with.
While it was often claimed that texts within the canon had complexity and ambiguity, it was always thought that popular texts pandered to the lowest common denominator, and offered no purchase on complex ideological formulations. The evidence does not bear that out. The relationship between reader and text was assumed to be one of simple identification. Literary merit was an unproblem- atic notion built upon Leavisite assumptions. This was set in question by reconsideration of characterisation itself, and then by the revolution in literary studies.
Hollindale made an initial attempt to explore the complexity of the problem, and Stephens has taken it further. He looks at a range of texts, including picture books written for the youngest readers, and examines specific titles by a number of writers in the central canon — Judy Blume, Anthony Browne, Leon Garfield, Jan Mark, William Mayne, Jan Needle, Rosemary Sutcliff, Maurice Sendak and others.
What the work of Said also does is re-alert us to the relationship between fiction and the wider world. From such a perspective we may note that in the last ten years we have seen a substantial electoral challenge from extreme right-wing parties across Europe echoed by a major shift to the right of an ostensibly left-wing British Labour government. At an international level, there has been the development of neo-imperialist rhetoric from the USA, supported by Britain, all of which has also been accompanied at the ideological level by what has been described as the total collapse of liberalism e.
Hutton In England many of the books that were criticised in the s are still being promoted in school in official curriculum documentation and elsewhere. The British response to the growth of cross-fertil- isation of European literatures has been one of increasing rather than decreasing isolation and xenophobia. There is clearly, then, plenty of scope for adding the newer theoretical critical perspectives to the proselytising debate of the s in order to re-examine the texts them- selves in relation to wider current social, political and cultural change.
One view of fiction is that it constructs readers in specific ideological formations, and thus enculturates them into the dominant discourses of capitalism — class division, pater- nalism, racism. Such views are not totally fatalistic, but do require of readers a very conscious effort to read against texts, to deconstruct them in order to reveal their underlying ideology. This then becomes the educational project. The opposing view is that readers are not nearly such victims of fiction as has been assumed, and that the fictions that are responsible for the transmission of such values are more complex than was at first thought.
Evidence from the children and young people themselves is beginning to be collected in order to explore this complexity. The argument is that readers are not simply determined by what they read; rather, there is a dialectical relationship between determinism and agency. Most females engage in daily conscious and uncon- scious attempts to resist the psychological degradation and low self-esteem that would result from the total application of the cultural ideology of femininity: submissiveness, dependency, domesticity and passivity.
The collection as a whole addresses the complexity of the debate, analysing the ideologies of the texts them- selves, the economic and political circumstances of their production, dissemination and distribution, the ideological features of the meanings their young readers make of them, and the political and economic circumstances of those young readers themselves.
Dorsch, T. Barthes, R. Belsey, C. Benjamin, W. Bradford, C. Bratton, J. Cherland, M. Christian-Smith, L. Cotton, P. Cullingford, C. Dixon, B. Eagleton, T. Eco, U. Egoff, S. Fielding, S. Fisher, M. Fox, G. Frye, N. Giroux, H. Harding, D. Hentoff, N. Hildick, W. Hoare, P. Hourihan, M. Hughes, F. Hughes, T. Hutton, W. Inglis, F. Iser, W. Jones, R. Leavis, F. Lawrence: Novelist, Harmondsworth: Penguin. Leeson, R.
Lenin, V. What is Childhood? Mac an Ghaill, M. McDowell, M. Macherey, P. Moebius, W. Moss, G. Pinsent, P. Plekhanov, G. Propp, V. Protherough, R. Ransome, A. Rosenheim, E. Todorov, T. Critical tradition and ideology 49 Townsend, J. Travers, P. Trease, G. Trotsky, L. Watson, K. Zimet, S. Further reading Clark, B. Krips, V. Marx, K.
Rather, it is seen as a series of ideological constructs that constitute, are constituted by, and interact with texts and inter- pretations.
Until the late s, there was outside Marxist criticism a generally accepted view of the nature of history and its place in literary studies. Perkins points out that, during most of the nineteenth century, literary history was popular and enjoyed prestige because it produced a more complete appreciation of the literary work than was otherwise possible.
In history studies itself, texts by Carr What Is History? Cannadine x Gender is discussed more fully below, within the section on cultural studies. White, says Jenkins, views the historical work as a verbal artefact, a narrative prose discourse, the content of which is as much invented — or as much imagined — as found Jenkins To see the past in story form is to give it an imaginary series of narrative structures and coherences it never had. To see the content of the past i. Evans argues that several works of historical fiction by authors such as Sebastian Faulks, Michael Ondaatje, Matthew Kneale, Zadie Smith are not historical novels in the sense that their main purpose is to re-create a past world through the exercise of the fictional imagination; rather, they are novels which find it easiest to address present-day concerns by putting them in a past context.
There was also the concomitant interest in cultural history and cultural studies discussed below: just as social history seemed poised to sweep all before it in the s, now cultural history seems to be in the ascendant: partly because it has been the most receptive to the insights of anthropology; partly because it makes very large claims about the terrain of the past which it encompasses; and partly because it has benefited most from the shift in interest from explanation to understanding. At a time when other sources of identity such as class and region have declined, history is stepping in to fill the gap … Moreover, history is important once more in constructing national identity, and nowhere more so than in England, where the decline of the idea of British unity in the face of resurgent Welsh and Scottish nationalism on the one hand and growing integration into Europe on the other, have left the English wondering who on earth they are.
In turn, these aspects of history are taken up eagerly by media makers. Cannadine xi In literary studies, the reconceptualisation of history and its relationship to literature had its roots in the work of such theorists and critics as Michel Foucault, Raymond Williams, Edward Said and Frank Lentricchia. And yet it is always from the present that we produce this knowledge: from the present in the sense that it is only from what is still extant, still available that we make it; and from the present in the sense that we make it out of an understanding formed by the present.
We bring what we know now to bear on what remains from the past to produce an intelligible history. What are the implications of our construction of the past from our present situation? The rise of newer forms of literary historicism is connected, in part, with social change and the effort to recover histories for blacks, women and minority groups within society.
In turn, these social aims are linked with the recuperation of forgotten texts, including texts that have never been considered worthy of academic study. The major influence in all this is that of Michel Foucault. As David Perkins puts it, [Foucault] encouraged his readers to reject the traditional Romantic model of literary change as continuous development, to resituate literary texts by relating them to discourses and representations that were not literary, and to explore the ideological aspects of texts in order to intervene in the social struggles of the present, and these remain characteristic practices of present-day historical contextualism — of New Historicism, feminist historiography, and cultural criticism.
Perkins 4 Not everyone, however, would agree with the implied radical political stance of the new historicist movements see Veeser The historical context undermines the transcendent significance traditionally accorded to the literary text and allows us to recover its histories; theoretical method detaches the text from immanent criticism which seeks only to reproduce it in its own terms; socialist and feminist commitment confronts the conservative categories in which most criticism has hitherto been conducted; textual analysis locates the critique of traditional approaches where it cannot be ignored.
Many of the changes outlined earlier on in this chapter in relation to historiography and history studies have appeared in literary studies of historical fiction for children. In , as part of his discussion of the intellectual and ideological bases for the writing of historical fiction for children, John Stephens argued that the intellectual and ideological bases of the genre were no longer dominant within Western society because much of the historical fiction for children which had been published up to then had been shaped by humanistic ideas such as [that] there is an essential human nature which underlies all changing surface appear- ances; important human qualities, such as Reason, Love, Honour, Loyalty, Courage etc.
According to an essay by Danielle Thaler in a recent collection, nothing much has changed. Thaler exam- ined a group of historical novels for young people by French authors published during the last thirty years. These histories are not considering all viewpoints as equal … they are merely suggesting that none of them possesses complete objective truth … they offer written history as a metaphor for the past, as a self-aware representation of a kind of under- standing of another time.
Stevenson 25 But, complexly and paradoxically, in historical fiction for children, The belief in historical fact qua fact is if anything stronger … Historical fiction for chil- dren acts as history improved, a superior replacement for the real but flawed thing … The genres are starting to trade places. Krips argues that the distinction between history and heritage is not much more than the lost and found of memory realised through objects that surround us: what we see as individuals and as nations is how we imagine ourselves to be.
Wojcik-Andrews The same crises in the humanities which resulted in radical questioning of the nature of history and the emergence of new historiographies of culture, including literary new historicism, also brought forth cultural studies. Culture is an ambiguous term: a problem shared, perhaps, by all concepts which are concerned with totality, including history, ideology, society and myth. It is what makes humans human. Third, it is the processes by which these patterns developed … Fourth, the term indicates a set of markers that set one people off from another and which indicate to us our member- ship in a group … Fifth, culture is the way that all these patterns, processes, and markers are represented that is, cultural activity, whether high, low, pop, or folk, that produces meaning.
Finally, the idea of culture often indicates a hierarchical ordering of all these processes, activities, ways of life, and cultural production as when people compare cultures or cultural activities against each other. An anthology published in suggests the following major categories of current work in the field: the history of cultural studies, gender and sexuality, nationhood and national identity, colonialism and post-colonialism, race and ethnicity, popular culture and its audi- ences, science and ecology, identity politics, pedagogy, the politics of aesthetics, cultural institutions, the politics of disciplinarity, discourse and textuality, history, and global culture in a postmodern age.
Grossberg et al. As Toby Miller, editor of a collection of essays published in entitled A Companion to Cultural Studies, explains: It accretes various tendencies that are splintering the human sciences: Marxism, femi- nism, queer theory, and the postcolonial. It takes its agenda and mode of anal- ysis from economics, politics, media and communication studies, sociology, literature, education, the law, science and technology studies, anthropology, and history, with a particular focus on gender, race, class, and sexuality in everyday life, commingling textual and social theory under the sign of a commitment to progressive social change.
The British tradition, which may be traced back to the pioneering work of F. Leavis and Denys Thompson in the s Leavis and Thompson but, more particularly, arises from the work of Raymond Williams Williams , believes that the study of culture involves both symbolic and material domains … not privileging one domain over the other but interrogating the relation between the two … Continually engaging with the political, economic, erotic, social, and ideological, cultural studies entails the study of all the relations between all the elements in a whole way of life. See, for example, Williams , , , It is a whole set of formations, it has its own different conjunctures and moments in the past.
It included many different kinds of work … It always was a set of unstable formations. As Mitchell comments, No longer was it possible to study the … base — the workings of the economy — without also and at the same time studying what had been seen as epiphenomenal to that base relations of family, ideologies of gender, social structures of sexuality, etc. Carrington The radical aspect of British cultural studies has, unsurprisingly, drawn criticism from some quarters.
In the work of some cultural studies theorists, one can detect the following characteris- tics: first, a belief that reality can only be made sense of through language or other cultural systems which are embedded within history. Second, a focus upon power and struggle. An obvious example is the cultural struggle between patriarchy and feminism and the impact that feminism had on cultural studies in Britain in the s Hall ; but, of course, divisions into groups in society can be along lines of race, class, age and so on, as well as gender.
However, British cultural studies was criticised for some years because of its relative neglect of race and colonialism. Third, cultural studies has tried to theorise subjectivity as a socio-cultural construction. But because subjectivity is a social construction, it is always open to change. All cultural systems, including language, literature and the products of mass communication, play a part in the construction and reconstruction of the subject.
It is in this way, according to the Althusserian wing of cultural studies, that ideology is constantly reproduced in people. If ideology is embodied in cultural text, the major task of the cultural critic is not only understanding the meaning of the text but also unmasking what appears as natural as a social construction which favours a particular class or group in society.
Inglis favours not cultural materialism but cultural hermeneutics. So the model of cultural analysis Inglis favours is the interpretative one which aims not to unmask texts, using such critical concepts as ideology or hegemony which decon- struct and demystify ideologies, but to understand intersubjective meanings Inglis What about art itself?
It is from this identity that we interpret the world. They are not aids to sensitivity nor adjuncts to the cultivated life. They are theories with which to think forwards … and understand backwards. Kline —50 However, Ellen Seiter offers a less pessimistic view when she points out that children are not simply passive consumers of goods and media: children are creative in their appropriation of consumer goods and media, and the mean- ings they make of these are not necessarily and completely in line with a materialist ethos … children create their own meanings from the stories and symbols of consumer culture.
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Seiter On the other hand, Henry Giroux argues that it is very important for us to analyse crit- ically the power of the Disney Corporation. Giroux 53—5 Nevertheless, Giroux thinks it is important not to be simplistic about Disney. In the preface to his book Sticks and Stones , Jack Zipes is provocatively critical of the way society regards and treats children: Everything we do to, with, and for our children is influenced by capitalist market conditions and the hegemonic interests of ruling corporate elites. In simple terms, we calculate what is best for our children by regarding them as investments and turning them into commodities.
The first group are activists such as media watch groups, family associations, religious institutions, and feminist organiza- tions [which] place pressure on the government and mass media to alter shows, images and literature that they feel are destroying the moral health of our children. In their view children are innocent and passive victims and are at the mercy of outside forces.
Later in the book, he argues, as others have done, that The family, schools, and religious organizations have been the nodal points of social- ization and acculturation, but their authority … has yielded and been undercut by the force of the mass-mediated market … Difference and otherness, rebellion and nonconformity have become commodities that children are encouraged to acquire because they can use them to defy parents and the community while furthering the same profit-oriented interests of corporate America.
In a theme park ride, the sequence of scenes is fixed in space — it is the audience that moves physically from scene to scene, literally drawn into the story. It makes playful use of traditional elements removed from their original context and drained of meaning, as a way of escaping the burden of the past.
Disneyland eliminates the troubles of actual travel by assembling the rest of the world, properly sanitized and mythologized, into one place of pure fantasy containing multiple spatial orders … it offers no critique of the existing state of affairs on the outside.
It merely perpetuates the fetish of commodity culture and tech- nological wizardry in a pure, sanitized and a-historical form. Harvey Disney theme parks are also connected with successful retailing: The shopping mall was conceived of as a fantasy world in which commodity reigned supreme … the whole environment seemed designed to induce nirvana rather than critical awareness.
And many other cultural institutions — museums and heritage centers, arenas for spectacle, exhibitions and festivals — seem to have as their aim the cultivation of nostalgia, the production of sanitized collective memories, the nurturing of uncritical aesthetic sensibilities, and the absorption of future possibilities into a non-conflictual arena that is eternally present. Referring to the work of Jacqueline Rose , Lesnik-Oberstein explains that, in the constructivist approach, Childhood, and children, are seen primarily as being constituted by, and constituting, sets of meanings in language … Childhood is, as an identity, a mediator and reposi- tory of ideas in Western culture about consciousness and experience, morality and values, property and privacy, but perhaps most importantly, it has been assigned a crucial relationship to language itself.
The research developed on four fronts. Some cultural geographers sought to connect the very idea of landscape to its historical development as part of the capitalist and Enlightenment transformation in the early modern period. Hence landscape can be understood to be a kind of text. Another important aspect of landscape is its connection with national identity and the power of some landscapes to be read as a national geography.
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But while landscape representation is an important aspect of nationalism, it is not so hege- monic as to preclude alternative readings or other forms of resistance. Instead, landscape representations are sites of contestation, just as are the landscapes they are meant to depict.
Culture is a means of differentiating the world, but is also global and hegemonic. Culture is a point of political contact, it is politics; but it is also both ordinary and the best that has been thought and known. Bradbury, N. Brantlinger, P. Buell, L. Cannadine, D. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Carrington, B. Cosgrove, D. Cox, J. Daniels, S. Dollimore, J. Duncan, J. Felperin, H. What is History Now? Fiske, J. Gavin, A. Geertz, C. Gilroy, P. Grossberg, L. Hall, S. Harvey, D. Hunt, L. Jackson, P. Jenkins, K. Jones, D. Kline, S. McGann, J. Miller, T. Minogue, K.
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Mitchell, D. Montrose, L. The New Historicism, London: Routledge. Morey, A. Murdoch, G. Perkins, D. Plotz, J. Rahn, S. Richardson, A. Ricoeur, P. Rose, G. History and culture 71 Seiter, E. Smoodin, E. Stevenson, D. Thaler, D. Thompson, J. Thum, M. Veeser, H. Watkins, T. White, H. Williams, R.
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Kinder, M. Pace, P. This chapter uses the semiotic analysis developed in contemporary critical linguistics to explore fascinating aspects of fiction, including register, narrative voice, and focalisation. Yet the way things are represented, based on complex codes and conventions of language and presuppositions about language, is an important component of texts, and the study of it allows us access to some of the key processes which shape text production Scholes 2—3.
The assumption that what is said can be extricated from how it is said, and that language is therefore only a transparent medium, indicates at best a limited grasp of written genres or of the social processes and movements with which genres and styles interrelate. The evocation of subjectivity as significance is a function of language and is effected by the manipulation of structural linguistic elements — stylistic expressivity — in a pragmatic context that is, within the frameworks of situational implicature or macro-textual structure, for instance.
But the contents and themes of that fiction are representations of social situations and values, and such social processes are inextricable from the linguistic processes which give them expression. In other words, the transactions between writers and readers take place within complex networks of social relations by means of language. Further, within the systems of a language it is possible for young readers to encounter in their reading an extensive range and variety of language uses.
Books which may be said to have a common theme or topic will differ not just because that theme can be expressed in a different content but because it is expressed through differing linguistic resources. Writers have many options to select from. Thus fiction offers a large range of generic options, such as the choice between fantasy and realism, with more specific differences within them, such as that between time-slip fantasy grounded in the knowable world or fantasy set in an imaginary universe. To make such a choice involves entering into a discourse, a complex of story types and structures, social forms and linguistic practices.
That discourse can be said to take on a distinctive style in so far as it is distinguished from other actualisations by recurrent patterns or codes. Because the patterns of a particular style are a selection from a larger linguistic code, however, and exist in a relationship of sameness and difference with a more generalised discourse, a writer remains to some degree subject to the discourse, and the discourse can be said to determine at least part of the meaning of the text.
Between them, the broader elements of genre and the more precise linguistic processes appear to restrict the possibility of wildly deviant readings, though what might be considered more probable readings depends on an acquired recognition of the particular discourse. If that recognition is not available to readers, the readings they produce may well seem aberrant. The communication which informs the transactions between writers and readers is a specialised aspect of socio-linguistic communication in general.
The forms and meanings of reality are constructed in language: by analysing how language works, we come nearer to knowing how our culture constructs itself, and where we fit into that construction. Language can make present the felt experiences of people living in other places and at other times, thus enabling a reader to define his or her own subjectivity in terms of perceived potentialities and differences. Finally, the capacity of language to express things beyond everyday reality, such as abstract thought or possible transcendent experiences, is imparted to written texts with all its potentiality for extending the boundaries of intellectual and emotional experience.
The socio-linguistic contexts of text production and reception are important considera- tions for any account of reading processes. But beyond satisfying a basic human need for contact, reading can also give many kinds of pleasure, though the pleasures of reading are not discovered in a social or linguistic vacuum: as we first learn how to read we also start learning what is pleasurable and what not, and even what is good writing and what not.
Our socio-linguistic group, and especially its formal educational structures, tends to precondition what constitutes a good story, a good argument, a good joke, and the better our command of socio-linguistic codes the greater is our appreciation. In other words, we learn to enjoy the process as well as the product. Writing and reading are also very indi- vidual acts, however, and the pleasure of reading includes some sense of the distinctive style of a writer or a text.
Stylistic description can be attempted by means of several methodologies. The latter can offer very precise and delicate descriptions, but have the limitation that non-specialists may find them impenetrable. This chapter works within the semiotic analysis developed in contem- porary critical linguistics Fairclough ; Stephens Linguists recog- nise that language is a social semiotic, a culturally patterned system of signs used to communicate about things, ideas or concepts.
As a system constructed within culture, it is not founded on any essential bond between a verbal sign and its referent. The following passages throw some light on these contrary assumptions about language: The glade in the ring of trees was evidently a meeting-place of the wolves … in the middle of the circle was a great grey wolf. He spoke to them in the dreadful language of the Wargs. Gandalf understood it. Bilbo did not, but it sounded terrible to him, and as if all their talk was about cruel and wicked things, as it was.
Charlie had waited until the boat went with its load of lamb carcasses, and then gone for it. Simply Brit: We have dispatched from our UK warehouse books of good condition to over 1 million satisfied customers worldwide. We are committed to providing you with a reliable and efficient service at all times.
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Seller Inventory mon Soft Cover. Condition: Fine. Satisfaction Guaranteed! Book is in Used-Good condition. Pages and cover are clean and intact. No current Talk conversations about this book. No reviews. You must log in to edit Common Knowledge data. Patterns of Male Intimacy 1. Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts References to this work on external resources. Wikipedia in English None. No library descriptions found. Book description. Haiku summary. Add to Your books.
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