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The above rule clearly prohibits proposing or seconding by a Government servant of a candidate for election, as such action would constitute "taking part in an election" within the meaning of rule 5 4 , proposing or seconding being an essential preliminary to an election. The Supreme Court decided recently in a case that the mere proposing or seconding by Government servants of nominations of candidates at elections is not forbidden under the Election Law.
The question has been raised whether this decision of the Supreme Court implies that Government servants are free to propose or to second the candidature of any one standing for an election. The question before them was whether section 8 took away from Government servants that which section 33 2 of the Act had given to them. On a construction of the Act they held that it did not.
That decision in no manner affects the obligation of Government servants under rule 5 of the Central Civil Services Conduct Rules for which he may be suitably penalized in accordance with the rules. Reports Under Rule 5 2 should be submitted by a Government servant to him immediate superior who will forward them through the normal channels to the authority competent to remove or dismiss him from service. Except where such authority requires guidance or clarification from a higher authority, it shall consider the report and pass appropriate orders.
The Government of India have had under consideration the question whether Government servants should be allowed to participate in the activities of Indian-Foreign Cultural Organisations such as the German-Indian Association, the Indo-Soviet Cultural Society, etc. The matter has been considered in consultation with the Ministry of External Affairs and the conclusion reached is that there is objection in principle to Government servants becoming members or office holders of such organizations despite the fact that their objectives may be praiseworthy and unobjectionable. One of the reasons is that when foreign dignitaries relating to a particular organization come to India, addresses are often presented by these organizations.
In some cases it may not be desirable for Government servants to be associated with such addresses, as they are bound to be as members or as office bearers. Some of these cultural organizations may not be very important or influential while others are very active and on occasions take a political stand which may be embarrassing to Government servants. In view of these considerations it has been decided that while such organizations may, in suitable cases, be looked upon with favour and assisted, the association of Government servants with such organizations should be avoided.
The Government of India have had under consideration the question whether central Government servants should be permitted to become members and take part in the activities of Moral Rearmament Movement. Government have decided that central Government servants should not associate themselves with my activities of the Moral Re-armament Movement in their official capacity, or with such of the activities as are political or have a political slant, even in their individual capacity.
For the rest they are advised to be circumspect and so ensure that even in their individual capacity they do not do anything which may be construed or easily misconstrued as participation in political activities. For associating themselves with the activities of the Moral Re-armament Movement, central Government servants should keep their Head of the Department informed who, having due regard to administrative requirements will be free to ask any Government servant to dissociate himself from the activities of the Movement.
A dated 4th July, wherein some restrictions have been imposed on the Government servants associating themselves with the activities of Moral Rearmament Movement. These instructions have been reviewed. After careful consideration, it has been decided to withdraw these instructions with immediate effect. It is, however, clarified that while associating with the activities of the Moral Rearmament Movement, the Central Government servants should ensure that they do not do anything which may be construed or easily misconstrued as participation in political activities, keeping in view the provisions of Rule 5 of the CCS Conduct Rules, Of Pers.
A dated 24th February, ]. The Government of India have had under consideration the question whether central Government servants should be permitted to become members and take part in the activities of the Sanyukta Sadachar Samiti — the Sanyukta Sadachar Samiti is a non-Official, non-political and non-sectarian organization recently started with the objects mainly of creating a social and moral climate to discourage anti-social and corrupt practices and of developing the will and capacity of the people to fight and eradicate corruption in all forms.
In view of the non-political and non-sectarian character of the Sanyukta Sadachar Samiti, it has been decided that Central Government servants should be free to join the Samiti, provided that their association with the Samiti is without detriment to the proper discharge of their normal official duties or infringement of the Government Servants Conduct Rules. Government servants as members of the Samiti should restrict their activities to the improvement of the ethical standards and the moral tone of society only and should not use the forum of the Samiti to lodge information or complaints against Government servants or Government agencies.
For becoming members of the Sanyukta Sadachar Samiti, no prior permission of the Government will be necessary, but such membership should be with the knowledge of the Head of the Department concerned. The question of regulating the participation of Government servants in foreign language classes conducted by Indo-Foreign cultural organizations like the German-Indian Association, Alliance Francaise de Delhi, Indo-Soviet Cultural Society etc.
Para 2 is intended for the guidance of administrative authorities only not reproduced. The attention of the Ministry of Finance etc. Any Government servant, who is a member of or is otherwise associated with the aforesaid organizations or with their activities is liable to disciplinary action. B dated the 30th November, wherein it was clarified that the Government have always held the activities of both the Rashtriya Swayam Sewak Sangh and the Jammat-e-Islami to be of such a nature that participation in them by Government servants would attract the provision of sub-rule 1 of Rule 5 of the Central Civil Service Conduct Rules, and that, any Government servant, who is a member of or is otherwise associated with the aforesaid organizations or with their activities, is liable to disciplinary action.
In the context of the current situation in the country the need to ensure secular outlook on the part of Government servants is all the more important. The need to eradicate communal feelings and communal bias cannot be over-emphasized. No notice should be taken by Government and its officers, local bodies, state-aided institutions of petitions or representations on communal basis, and no patronage whatsoever should be extended to any communal organization.
It is emphasized that any disregard of these instructions should be considered as a serious act of indiscipline and suitable action initiated against the erring employees. Under sub-rule 3 of Rule 5 of the CCS Conduct Rules, , if any question arises whether a party is a political party or any organization takes part in politics, within the meaning of this rule, the Central Government are to decide the issue.
In pursuance of this rule, it is clarified that membership of or participation in the activities of the movement known as Anand Marg or any of its organizations by a Government Servant would attract the provisions of sub-rule 1 of Rule 5 of the CCS Conduct Rules, Any Government Servant who is a member of or is otherwise associated with the activities of Anand Marg or any of its organizations is liable to disciplinary action.
It is clarified that membership of or participation in the activities of the movement known as the Anand Marg or any of its organizations by a Government servant would attract the provisions of sub-rule 1 of rule 5 of the Central Civil Services Conduct Rules, Any Government servant, who is a member of or is otherwise associated with the activities of Anand Marg or any of its organizations see list in Annexure is liable to disciplinary action. B , dated The Government have reviewed recently the policy in regard to the social, cultural and similar other organizations whose activities may have political aspect.
There have been instructions that the activities of certain organizations should be regarded as political in character.
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While such instruction are in force, a civil servant would be liable to disciplinary action, if he were to associate himself with any organization mentioned in such instructions. But there are several other organizations in regard to which such instructions have not been issued for purposes of rule 5 of the CCS Conduct Rules, It is essential that Government servants should not only maintain political neutrality but should also appear to do so and they should not participate in the activities of, or associate themselves with any organization in respect of which there is the slightest reason to think that the organization has political aspect.
These principles should be scrupulously followed by central Government servants. In this connection, attention is also invited to Rule 5 of the CCS Conduct Rules, , which inter alia prohibits central Government servants from canvassing or otherwise interfering with, or using their influence in connection with or taking part in, an election to any legislature or local authority subject to the exercise of the right of franchise and assisting in the conduct of an election in the due performance of a duty imposed on them by or under any law for the time being in force.
Attention is also invited to OM No. B , dated the 18th July, Decision No. Extract from the Election Commission of India letter No. Subject :- Guidelines for the Conduct of Government Servants in relation to elections. These instructions stressed that all Government employees should maintain an attitude of strict impartiality.
In fact, they were asked not only to be impartial but it was considered important that they should also appear to be impartial in relation to the elections. In short, they were required so to conduct themselves as to inspire confidence in the public in regard to their impartiality so that there might not be any occasion for the people to think that the elections were not going to be held in a free, fair and pure atmosphere.
To do so, they were enjoined to avoid giving room for any suspicion that they were favouring any party or any candidate. The other points stressed in these instructions were that a Government servant should take no part in any election campaign or canvassing and that he should take scrupulous care not to lend his name, official position or authority to assist one group as against any other.
It was further emphasized that any disregard of instructions would be considered by the Government as a serious act of indiscipline and that in case of doubt a Government servant should not hesitate to consult his superior officer.
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It may be added that the points summarized above are only illustrative and not exhaustive. The Commission considers it important that their Government servants attention should be specifically drawn to the provision which has been made in the Representation of the People Act, reading as follows Penalty for Government servants for acting as election agent, polling agent or counting agent :- If any person in the service of the Government acts as an election agent or a polling agent or a counting agent of candidate at an election, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months, or with fine or with both.
The Commission has received complaints from various parts of the country that Government employees, especially those appointed for election purposes, such as returning officers, assistant returning officers, presiding and polling officers, are not always as impartial as they ought to be. It has been complained that these officers some times show particular favour to candidates of political parties of their choice even at the time of the actual poll and the counting of votes.
Some High Courts also have, in some cases, commented severely on the conduct of some officers appointed on election duty. While the Commission is sure that the number of such officers cannot be large, the Commission would take the opportunity to make an appeal to all Government employees, especially to election officers, to be and also appear to be absolutely impartial, independent and neutral, in the performance of their election duties, whether at the time of acceptance or scrutiny of nomination papers, or at the time of polling in the polling stations, or at the time of counting of votes at the counting places.
With reference to decision No. It is felt that in the light of the existing provisions of the Conduct Rules and the instructions already issued on the subject, taking any active part by a Government servant in a meeting or demonstration organized by a political party might cause an impression which may well be construed as assisting to a political movement. For example, if a Government servant takes active or prominent part in organizing or conducting such a meeting or demonstration or speaks himself therein, or attends regularly or even frequently any such meetings etc.
In order, therefore, to avoid any doubts about their political neutrality, it would be in the interest of the Government servants themselves not to participate in such meetings or demonstrations. Of Personnel and Adm. Reforms OM No. This rule, inter alia, provided that no person shall Any person who contravenes any of the provisions of the above rule, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years, or with fine or with both. There is reason to believe, that certain Central Government servants who had earlier been participating in the activities of the Organisations mentioned above, have continued their active association with them, even after they have been banned.
It may be recalled that even before the ban orders were issued, there were instructions to the effect that participation of Government servants in the activities of the R. In spite of these instructions cases had come to notice in the past of some Government servants who had been associating themselves with the activities of these organizations.
Such employees who are found to have connection with the banned organizations are liable to be dealt with suitably in departmental proceedings. In appropriate cases action could also be considered against them under proviso c of Clause 2 of Article of the Constitution. B , dated the 28th November, ]. B dated the 28th November, , decision No. Consequent upon the lifting of the ban on organizations such as R.
Hereafter, action may be taken against Central Government employees if they come to notice for participation in the activities of the political organizations, under the normal service rules, such as rule 5 of the Central Civil Services Conduct Rules, , or corresponding rules governing the service conditions of other categories of the employees.
B , dated the 23rd April, ]. Instances have come to the notice of the Government in which public servants and public utility facilities were used for arranging crowds for rallies and for arranging transport for bringing those crowds involving violations of laws and rules in regard to the use of such transport. In this connection, attention is invited to rule 5 1 of the CCS Conduct Rules, which provides that no Government servant shall be a member of, or be otherwise associated with any political party or organization which takes part in politics; nor shall he take part in, subscribe in aid of, or assist in any other manner, any political movement or activity.
It is also clarified in this Department OM No. It will not suffice to say that such arrangements were made on the orders of superior officers, as the Explanation below sub-rule 2 of rule 3 of the CCS Conduct Rules, clarifies that nothing in Clause ii of the aforesaid sub-rule 2 shall be construed as empowering a Government employee to evade his own responsibilities.
It hardly need to be emphasized that Government servants should not only maintain political neutrality but should also appear to do so. Taking active part in holding rallies in support of any political party by arranging for crowds and arranging transport for brining those crowds would, therefore, clearly attract the provisions of the aforesaid rule of the Conduct Rules. Government employees should, therefore, desist from engaging in such activities which may be construed as participation in the activities of a political party.
A , dated 1st September, ]. Instances have been brought to the notice of this Department where Government servants seek prior permission for becoming members of socio-religious bodies, the objectives of which are claimed to be aimed at social reforms and religious awakening etc. According to Rule 15 of the Central Civil Services Conduct Rules, , no previous sanction of the Government is required for a Central Government servant to undertake honorary work of a social or charitable nature but he should discontinue taking part in such activities, if so directed by the Government.
Prior permission is essential only if the Government servant seeks to hold an elective office. As regards participation in purely religious activities, the freedom to profess and practice any religion is guaranteed under the Constitution of India itself. Since, however, the Constitution of India is based on the principle of secular state, the Government servants, while they are free to profess and practice any religion in their private lives, should so conduct themselves in public as to leave no room for any impression to arise that they do not subscribe to the secular philosophy of the State.
Some of the organizations and movements claiming to aim at social and religious reforms, may have some attributes of sectarian or communal nature. It will, therefore, be desirable on the part of the Government servants to be very cautious in associating themselves with any organization or movement the activities of which are liable to be construed as sectarian or communal in nature.
It is not possible to give an exhaustive list of such activities or of the organizations and movements whose aims and objectives may be objectionable. The responsibility for the consequences of the decision to join any organization and participating in its activities will rest with the employee himself. It is, therefore, the duty of the Government employee who wishes to join any organization or association to satisfy himself that its activities and objectives are not of such a nature as are likely to attract action under any of the provisions of the Conduct Rules.
No Government servant shall join or continue to be a member of, an association the objects or activities of which are prejudicial to the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, or public order or morality. The views of the Staff Side have been considered carefully by Government. As a comprehensive and exhaustive enumeration of various object or activities which would attract rule 6 of the CCS Conduct Rules, , is not practicable and as the apprehension of the Staff Side was mainly in regard to the possibly of arbitrary action at lower levels, it has been decided that action for alleged violation of rule 6 of the CCS Conduct Rules, can be taken by a disciplinary authority only when an authority not below the level of a Head of Department has decided that the objects or activities of the Association concerned are such as would attract rule 6 ibid.
A , dated the 7th June, ]. B , dated the 3rd March, , not reproduced , on the above subject and to say that a point has been raised whether after the promulgation of the Central Civil Services Recognition of Service Associations Rules, , the convention that an officer who may be required to deal in a responsible capacity with representations from a service Association, should not be an office-bearer or a member of the Executive Committee of that Association, would continue to be observed. It has been decided that any Government servant who is an office-bearer or a member of the Executive Committee of a Service association should not himself deal in his official capacity with any representation or other matters connected with that Association.
Rule 7 ii of the Central Civil Services Conduct Rules, , provides that no Government servant shall resort to or in any way abet any form of strike in connection with any matter pertaining to his service or the service of any other Government servant. Instances have come to the notice of Government where employees resort to various methods of protests for redress of grievances, some of which are tantamount to strike.
Government servants who resort to action of the above kind violate rule 7 ii of the Central Civil Services Conduct Rules, and disciplinary action can be taken against them. It may be noted that the list of activities which are covered under the definition of strike as enumerated above is only illustrative and not exhaustive. It only clarifies the position in respect of practices which are often resorted to at present. They are also subversive of discipline and harmful to the public interest, and participation in them by Government servants and would constitute good and sufficient reason within the meaning of Rule 11 of the Central Civil Services Classification, Control and Appeal Rules, It has, therefore, been decided that a serious view should be taken of such acts of lawlessness and insubordination on the part of public servants.
The Central Government Departments are advised to take action on the following lines in such cases In the charge-sheet to be served in pursuance of such disciplinary action, it should be specified to the extent that the facts justify, that demonstrations prejudicial to public order and involving criminal offences, namely, wrongful restraint, wrongful confinement, criminal trespass and incitement to such offences, have been held; that such conduct was subversive of discipline and harmful to the public interest; and that the conduct was wholly unbecoming of a Government servant.
The absence should not be regularized as leave of any kind. The names of the offenders should be included in the written report. In certain circumstances a petition could be filed before the High Court for issue of the appropriate writ, but this should be done after taking legal advice. While taking action to file a complaint before the appropriate Magistrate, the assistance of the Officer of the Central Bureau of Investigation if any, available locally, may also be taken in drafting the complaints and deciding the manner, in which evidence should be collected and produced.
It has been noticed that when some demonstrations organized by political parties were held in or passed through the vicinity of Government offices, the Government employees working in these offices came out to witness the demonstration. In this process the Government employees sometimes got mixed up with the demonstrators and it became difficult to segregate the demonstrators from the Government employee.
In order to avoid such situations in future, the Ministry of Finance etc. Programmes and receiving of honorarium therefor — permission not necessary.
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No Government servant shall, in any radio broadcast, telecast through any electronic media or in any document published in his own name or anonymously, pseudonymously or in the name of any other person or in any communication to the press or in any public utterance, make any statement of fact or opinion -.
Provided that in the case of any Government servant included in any category of Government servants specified in the second proviso to sub-rule 3 of rule 1, nothing contained in this clause shall apply to bonafide expression of views by him as an office-bearer of a trade union or association of Government servants for the purpose of safeguarding the conditions of service of such Government servants or for securing an improvement thereof; or. Provided that nothing in this rule shall apply to any statements made or views expressed by a Government servant in his official capacity or in the due performance of the duties assigned to him.
Government servants visiting foreign countries should refrain from giving expression to views on Indian or foreign affairs and in particular, from making any written or oral statements without specific prior approval of the Head of the Indian Missions in the country visited. The Estimates Committee in para 20 of their Ninety-Third Report on public Services have made the following recommendations It is entirely for the Minister to accept the view of the officers or not.
If they are made to do things, then the morale of the services will go down and the administration will suffer and I personally think that ultimately, the people will also suffer. While the Committee endorse the forthright view expressed by the then Home Minister regarding the desirability of granting complete freedom to Government officers to express their differing views, they would also like Government to act in their capacity of loco parentis to the public services and shield them against all unjustified attacks from whichever source they are launched.
In the opinion of the Committee, nothing can weaken the morale of the public services more than a general feeling that, in a certain set of circumstances, they may be subjected to harassing enquiries with no prospect of any protection from any quarter, for whatever they might have done in good faith. The above recommendations of the Committee are brought to the notice of the Ministry of Finance etc. Government have appointed the Administrative Reforms Commission to examine the public administration of the country and to make recommendations for reform and reorganization, where necessary.
The Commission are interviewing senior Officers of Government and Heads of Departments at the Centre and in the States with a view to ascertaining their views on administrative reforms. In such interviews, Government servants will be free to give frank expression to their personal views, vide rule 10 3 of the Central Civil Services Conduct Rules, No permission of Government or of the Head of Department, is required for this purpose.
However, the evidence tendered before the Commission should not be given publicity as that would amount to public criticism of Government or unauthorized communication of information vide rules 9 and 11 of the CCS Conduct Rules, Without prejudice to the discretion of the disciplinary authority to institute disciplinary action against the employees concerned, should it want to do so, it is requested that the provisions of the above decision No. Evidence before Committee or any other authority.
Among Secretariat officers of the Central Government, Secretaries may, if they so desire give their personal views in the light of their own knowledge and experience. Other Secretariat officers, i. Such officers should, however, obtain the prior permission of Government before they appear before the Commission. The above procedure will not apply to Government servants who appear before the Pay Commission on behalf of service associations. They may do so without the prior permission of Government, if so authorized by the Service Associations whom they represent.
There is no objection to individual Government servants submitting Memoranda etc. Every Government servant shall, in performance of his duties in good faith, communicate information to a person in accordance with the Right to Information Act, 22 of and the rules made thereunder :.
Government have had under consideration the question whether the identity of the officer who recorded adverse remarks in the annual confidential report of a Government servant should be disclosed while communicating the adverse remarks to him.
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Cases have come to the notice of this Ministry where certain offices are reported to have disclosed the identity of the superior officer who made the adverse remarks while communicating them to the Government servant concerned. Apart from this, disclosure of the identity of the superior officer is also likely to lead to unpleasantness and personal animosity. It is, therefore desirable that while communicating the adverse remarks to the Government servant concerned, the identity of the superior officer making such remarks should not normally be disclosed.
If, however, in a particular case, it is considered necessary to disclose the identity of the superior officer, the authority dealing with the representation may at his discretion allow the identity to be communicated. In so far as persons serving in the Indian audit and Accounts Departments are concerned, these orders are issued after consultation with the Comptroller and Auditor General of India. Instances have come to the notice of Government of leakage of classified information from time to time and their publication in the Press.
It is the duty of all Government servants to safeguard the security of all classified information and papers to which they have access in the course of their official duties. In this connection the relevant provisions, in the Manual or Office Procedure and in the Central Civil Services Conduct Rules, , are reproduced in the Annexure not reproduced. It would be observed from paragraph 90 para in edition of the Manual of Office Procedure reproduced in the Annexure below that only Ministers, Secretaries and other officers specially authorized by the Minister are permitted to meet representatives of the Press and give information.
It is requested that provisions in the Manual of Office Procedure and Conduct Rules, reproduced in the Annexure as well as the decision referred to in the preceding paragraph may be brought to the notice of all concerned. Communication of information to the Press — 1 Official information to the press and other news media, i.
Any other official, if approached by a representative of the press, will direct him to the Press Information Bureau. The accredited information officer will meet the authorized officials from time to time to collect information worthy of publicity. It has been noticed that the Government servants and others, including former Government servants have sometimes quoted or copied in their representations, appeals, etc.
Government circulars including those marked secret, notes and other information from files, which they are ordinarily not expected to have seen or to have retained. Communication of such documents, etc. Rule 11 of the Central Civil Services Conduct Rules, lays down that a Government servant may not communicate directly to other Government servant or to non-official persons or to press any documents or information which may have come into his possession in the course of his public duties.
Retention of such documents or information by a Government servant in his personal custody for use in furtherance of his personal interest, e. A person contravening the provisions of the above Act renders himself liable to prosecution. Contravention of the provisions of the Act and of the Conduct Rules can also be dealt with departmentally under the relevant Discipline Rules, and may well justify the imposition of a suitable penalty with reference to the fact and circumstances of each case. Attention of the Ministry of Finance etc. Similarly paragraphs and of the Manual of Office Procedure lay down the procedure for contacts with the Press.
Instances have come to notice that some Government servants have been unauthorisedly communicating with the Press either in their own name or in pseudonymous names. Instructions have been issued from time to time restraining all Government servants from communicating with the Press unauthorisedly but it is observed that the provisions of the Conduct Rules are not being followed in letter and spirit. Recently, some cases have come to notice when officers have criticized in the Press the functioning of their own Ministry and there are instances of expression of views which are in direct opposition to the views expressed by the Minister in public resulting in avoidable indiscretion on the part of civil and military officers.
It is once against reiterated that violation of the provisions of Conduct Rules and other corresponding provisions amounts to a serious misconduct. The concerned cadre controlling authorities are advised to view such misconduct seriously. No Government servant shall, except with the previous sanction of the Government or of the prescribed authority, ask for or accept contributions to, or otherwise associate himself with the raising of, any funds or other collections in cash or in kind in pursuance of any object whatsoever.
A copy of the relevant Rule is given below for ready reference :. The position under the Conduct Rules applicable to other Government servants is slightly different but it has been decided that the same rule should apply to all central Government servants so far as public funds are concerned. The position may please be explained to all the employees of the Ministry of Finance etc. It may be added that the mere payment of a subscription to some charitable or benevolent fund would not, by itself, amount to participation in the raising of such fund; and is permissible except in circumstances specified in the Rule 23 Rule 5 of the CSS Conduct Rules, of the Government Servants Conduct Rules taking part in politics.
Rule 9 of the Central Civil Services Conduct Rules, now Rule 12 prohibits Government servants from asking for or accepting contributions to or otherwise associating themselves with the raising of any fund in pursuance of any object whatsoever. Strictly speaking, in sponsoring such collections without prior permission, the Government servants would be contravening the provisions of the Central Civil Services Conduct Rules, now Rule Neither the constitution of the unions which may envisage collection of funds for the purposes of the unions, nor the fact that unions have been registered as trade unions under the Indian Trade Unions Act, , which permits trade unions to raise funds, gives any immunity to Government servants in the matter.
This is the legal position, but in order to assist in the smooth working of the unions, as well as to avoid too many references on the subject, it has been decided to grant general permission in the class of cases mentioned below. The members of a union can freely collect subscription among themselves for welfare activities of the union. So long as their appeal is confined to the members, no permission need be sought. If any approach to the public is made, whether directly or indirectly, such permission should be necessary.
Similarly, in a union where a matter affecting the general interest of the members of the union is in dispute and it is permissible under the rules of the union to spend its funds over such a matter, its members should be free to collect funds, especially for that special purpose, from amongst its members.
Where, however, action is taken against a person who happens to be a member of the union, in his personal capacity or on grounds which concern him in particular no funds should be collected from even amongst its members by the Union for his defence. Under Rule 12 of the Central Civil Service Conduct Rules, no Government servant may except with the previous sanction of the Government or other competent authority, ask for or accept contribution to or otherwise associate himself with the raising of any fund in pursuance of any object whatsoever.
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