Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Formation, Analysis, and Control


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In Nriagu, J. Encyclopedia of Environmental Health. Burlington Elsevier. Bruce; Wagner, Elizabeth D. American Journal of Epidemiology. A pooled and meta-analysis of European case-control studies". Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Environmental Health Perspectives. Categories : Chlorine Drinking water Water pollution Water treatment.

Hidden categories: Use dmy dates from August Namespaces Article Talk. We discuss these findings and the uncertainties-relating particularly to exposure-that may have affected them. Trihalomethanes in drinking water and spontaneous abortion Epidemiology , 9 2 — DOI: Trihalomethanes chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane, and chlorodibromomethane are common contaminants of chlorinated drinking water. Although animal data indicate that these compounds may be reproductive toxicants, little information exists on their relation to spontaneous abortion in humans.

We examined exposure to trihalomethanes and spontaneous abortion in a prospective study of 5, pregnant women in a prepaid health plan. Seventy-eight drinking water utilities provided concurrent trihalomethane sampling data. We calculated total trihalomethane levels by averaging all measurements taken by the subject's utility during her first trimester. We calculated exposures to individual trihalomethanes in an analogous manner. American Cancer Society. Federal Register , 63 , No. A survey was conducted by the American Water Works Assocn. It was found, on av.

About 4. Compliance with the THM regulation involved estd. Disinfection by-products: formation and occurrence in drinking water. In Encyclopedia of Environmental Health , Ed. Nriagu, J. Press : ; pp — Occurrence of a new generation of disinfection byproducts Environ.

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Disinfection Byproducts Analysis

Krasner, Stuart W. American Chemical Society. A survey of disinfection byproduct DBP occurrence in the US was conducted at 12 drinking water treatment facilities. In addn. These priority DBP included iodinated trihalomethanes THM , other halomethanes, a non-regulated haloacid, haloacetonitriles, haloketones, halonitromethanes, haloaldehydes, halogenated furanones, haloamides, and non-halogenated carbonyls. This work obtained quant. An effort was made to select facilities treating source water high in total org. Highest dichloroacetaldehyde concns. Pre-ozonation increased trihalonitromethane formation.

The presence of Br- resulted in a shift to formation of other Br-contg. DBP not normally measured brominated ketones, acetaldehydes, nitromethanes, acetamides. Br, resp. Also, 28 new, previously unidentified DBP were detected, including brominated and iodinated haloacids, a brominated ketone, and chlorinated and iodinated aldehydes. Environmental Protection Agency. Federal Register , 71 , No. Factors influencing the formation and relative distribution of haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes in drinking water Environ.

Various water quality and treatment characteristics were evaluated under controlled chlorination conditions to det. Raw waters were sampled from five water utilities and were coagulated with alum and fractionated with XAD-8 resin. The resulting four fractions, raw and coagulated water and the hydrophobic and hydrophilic exts. The results show that increasing the pH from 6 to 8 increased trihalomethane formation but decreased trihaloacetic acid formation, with little effect on dihaloacetic acid formation.

More trihalomethanes were formed than haloacetic acids at pH 8, while the reverse was true at pH 6. Hydrophobic fractions always gave higher haloacetic acid and trihalomethane formation potentials than their corresponding hydrophilic fractions, but hydrophilic carbon also played an important role in disinfection byproduct formation for waters with low humic content. The bromine-contg. The hydrophilic fractions were more reactive with bromine than their corresponding hydrophobic fractions. Coagulation generally removed more haloacetic acid precursors than trihalomethane precursors.

Waters with higher specific UV absorbance values were more amenable to removal of org. The exptl. Predictive capability of chlorination disinfection byproducts models J. Elsevier Ltd. In this article, the std. R2 were used to analyze the variability of 87 models from 23 different publications.

The majority of models were formulated for THM4. Dissolved organic nitrogen in drinking water supplies: a review J. Water Supply: Res. IWA Publishing. A review is given on the following dissolved org. N DON issues: 1 anal. N ions. DON concns. DON sources include wastewater discharges, agricultural fertilizers, algae, forest litter and soils. DON is comprised of a broad spectrum of mol. During chlorination higher org. N content leads to 1 increasing chlorine demand, 2 prodn. N DBPs. Information on DON removal during potable water treatment is lacking and should be the focus of future research.

Halonitroalkanes, halonitriles, haloamides and N-nitrosamines: A critical review of nitrogenous disinfection byproduct N-DBP formation pathways Environ. A crit. Important themes discussed include: N-DBP family formation pathways are partially linked because most pathways involve similar amine precursors; it is unlikely that a disinfection scheme free from byproduct formation will be discovered, so disinfectant combinations should be optimized to reduce overall exposure to toxic byproducts; the understanding formation pathways should be used to devise methods of applying disinfectants which minimize byproduct formation while accomplishing pathogen redn.

N precursor pool should be exploited to predict byproduct formation likely to form at high yields. Topics covered include: halonitroalkane, halonitrile and haloamide, and nitrosamine formation pathways during chloramination, breakpoint chlorination, chlorination of NOcontg. Relative importance of N -nitrosodimethylamine compared to total N-nitrosamines in drinking waters Environ. A total N-nitrosamine assay was developed and applied to 36 drinking water plant effluents or distribution system samples from 11 utilities, including 9 utilities that practiced chloramination for secondary disinfection.

Among 8 plant influent waters, NDMA was detected once, while total N-nitrosamines were detected in 5 samples, suggesting the importance of source water protection. Chloramines were applied to org. The results suggest that N-nitrosamines as a class may be more prevalent than suggested by occurrence surveys conducted using EPA Method Relative importance of different water categories as sources of N-nitrosamine precursors Environ. Zeng, Teng; Glover, Caitlin M. A comparison of loadings of N-nitrosamines and their precursors from different source water categories is needed to design effective source water blending strategies.

Previous research using Formation Potential FP chloramination protocols high dose and prolonged contact times raised concerns about precursor loadings from various source water categories, but differences in the protocols employed rendered comparisons difficult. In this study, we applied Uniform Formation Condition UFC chloramination and ozonization protocols mimicking typical disinfection practice to compare loadings of ambient specific and total N-nitrosamines as well as chloramine-reactive and ozone-reactive precursors in 47 samples, including 6 pristine headwaters, 16 eutrophic waters, 4 agricultural runoff samples, 9 stormwater runoff samples, and 12 municipal wastewater effluents.

N-Nitrosamines and their precursors were negligible in pristine headwaters. Conventional, and to a lesser degree, nutrient removal wastewater effluents were the dominant source of NDMA and its chloramine- and ozone-reactive precursors. While wastewater effluents were dominant sources of TONO and their precursors, algal blooms, and to a lesser degree agricultural or stormwater runoff, could be important where they affect a major fraction of the water supply.

Characterization and determination of chloro- and bromo-benzoquinones as new chlorination disinfection byproducts in drinking water Anal. We report the characterization and detn. These haloquinones are suspected bladder carcinogens and are likely produced during drinking water disinfection treatment. However, detection of these haloquinones is challenging, and consequently, they have not been characterized as DBPs until recently.

We developed an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry technique based on our observation of unique ionization processes. These chloro- and bromo-quinones were ionized through a redn. Tandem mass spectra and accurate mass measurements of these compds. The addn. These improvements were rationalized from the ests. The method of tandem mass spectrometry detection, combined with sample preservation, solid phase extn. The 4 haloquinones were detected only in drinking water after chlorination treatment, with concns.

This method will be useful for future studies of occurrence, formation pathways, toxicity, and control of these new halogenated DBPs. Effect of bromide and iodide ions on the formation and speciation of disinfection byproducts during chlorination Environ. No significant change in TOX concn. However, TOX concns. The extent of iodine substitution was much lower than that of bromine substitution when comparing identical initial concns.

The tendency toward iodate formation resulted in the unusual situation where higher chlorine doses actually caused reduced levels of iodinated org. UV disinfection implementation status in US water treatment plants J. Have utilities switched to chloramines?

American Water Works Association. The AWWA secondary disinfection practices survey - a web-based survey of water utilities - was conducted between Aug. Formation of N-nitrosamines from eleven disinfection treatments of seven different surface waters Environ. Formation of 9 N-nitrosamines was studied when 11 different source waters representing various qualities were each treated with 11 bench-scale disinfection processes, without addn. The total org. The disinfected water samples and the untreated source waters were analyzed for 9 nitrosamines using a solid phase extn.

NDPhA 0. These results suggest that UV degrdn. This study demonstrates that environmental concns. Nitrosamine formation pathway revisited: the importance of dichloramine and dissolved oxygen Environ. Nitrosamine formation during chloramination previously has been linked to a reaction between monochloramine and org. Our results demonstrate the crit. We propose a new nitrosamine formation pathway in which dichloramine reacts with secondary amine precursors to form chlorinated unsym. Even when preformed monochloramine was applied, our model explained nearly all N-nitrosodimethylamine formation from the traces of dichloramine formed via monochloramine disproportionation.

We suggest that, in contrast to unsym. With the improved understanding of the nitrosamine formation pathway, strategies are suggested that could significantly reduce nitrosamine formation during chloramination. Formation of iodo-trihalomethanes during disinfection and oxidation of iodide-containing waters Environ. HOI is quickly formed from naturally occurring I- by oxidn. The kinetics of reactions of HOI with org. Resorcinol had the highest yield of CHI3. The kinetics of I-THM formation were measured in natural waters which were oxidatively treated with ozone, Cl, or chloramine.

With chloramination, I-THMs esp. CHI3 were the main products.

Disinfection Byproducts In Tap Water: 5 Things To Know

The CHI3 formation in the oxidn. Tradeoffs in disinfection byproduct formation associated with precursor pre-oxidation for control of nitrosamine formation Environ. Shah, Amisha D. Various primary disinfectants can deactivate NDMA precursors prior to chloramination. However, they promote the formation of other byproducts. This study compared the redn. Ten waters impacted by treated wastewater, poly diallyldimethylammonium chloride polyDADMAC polymer, or anion exchange resin were examd. A similar redn. However, for some waters, chlorination actually increased NDMA formation at lower exposures.

For the selected pretreatment oxidant exposures, concns. Chloropicrin and trichloroacetaldehyde formation were increased by preozonation or medium pressure UV followed by postchloramination. Among preoxidants, ozone achieved the greatest redn. Accordingly, preozonation may inhibit NDMA formation with minimal risk of promotion of other byproducts. Higher temps. The net effect of these opposing trends on NDMA formation was water-specific. Ozone promotes chloropicrin formation by oxidizing amines to nitro compounds Environ.

Chloropicrin formation has been assocd. Secondary amines featuring these reactive primary amines as functional groups e. Chloropicrin yields from tertiary amines were low. Natural water expts. However, chloropicrin yields increased and dichloronitrolysine yields decreased in the absence of hydroxyl radical scavengers, suggesting that future research should characterize the potential occurrence of such halonitroalkane analogs relative to natural radical scavenger e.

Control of nitrosamines during non-potable and de facto wastewater reuse with medium pressure ultraviolet light and preformed monochloramine Environ. Royal Society of Chemistry. Water utilities practicing chlorination of poorly nitrified wastewater effluents for non-potable reuse, or of ammonia-contg. For waters with low ammonia concns. However, the benefit of preformed monochloramine was restricted to waters with low to moderate ammonia concns.

Toxic impact of bromide and iodide on drinking water disinfected with chlorine or chloramines Environ. Disinfectants inactivate pathogens in source water, however, they also react with org. Although only a few DBP classes have been systematically analyzed for toxicity, iodinated and brominated DBPs tend to be the most toxic. The objectives of this research were 1 to det.

Water disinfected with chlorine was less cytotoxic but more genotoxic than water disinfected with chloramine. For both disinfectants, the addn. However, toxicity was weakly and inversely correlated with TOCl. Thus, the forcing agents for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were the generation of brominated and iodinated DBPs rather than the formation of chlorinated DBPs.

Disinfection practices need careful consideration esp. CHO cytotoxicity and genotoxicity analyses of disinfection by-products: an updated review J. The disinfection of drinking water is an important public health service that generates high quality, safe and palatable tap water. The disinfection of drinking water to reduce waterborne disease was an outstanding public health achievement of the 20th century.

A large number of DBPs are cytotoxic, neurotoxic, mutagenic, genotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic. Epidemiological studies demonstrated low but significant associations between disinfected drinking water and adverse health effects.


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The distribution of DBPs in disinfected waters has been well defined by advances in high precision analytical chemistry. Progress in the analytical biology and toxicology of DBPs has been forthcoming. The objective of this review was to provide a detailed presentation of the methodology for the quantitative, comparative analyses on the induction of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of DBPs using an identical analytical biological platform and endpoints.

A single Chinese hamster ovary cell line was employed in the assays. The data presented are derived from papers published in the literature as well as additional new data and represent the largest direct quantitative comparison on the toxic potency of both regulated and emerging DBPs. These data may form the foundation of novel research to define the major forcing agents of DBP-mediated toxicity in disinfected water and may play an important role in achieving the goal of making safe drinking water better.

Environmental Protection Agency , Office of Water. EPA F accessed August 15, The disinfection of drinking water is a major public health achievement; however, an unintended consequence of disinfection is the generation of disinfection by-products DBPs. Many of the identified DBPs exhibit in vitro and in vivo toxicity, generate a diversity of adverse biological effects, and may be hazards to the public health and the environment.

Only a few DBPs are regulated by several national and international agencies and it is not clear if these regulated DBPs are the forcing agents that drive the observed toxicity and their associated health effects. In this study, we combine analytical chemical and biological data to resolve the forcing agents associated with mammalian cell cytotoxicity of drinking water samples from three cities. These data suggest that the trihalomethanes THMs and haloacetic acids may be a small component of the overall cytotoxicity of the organic material isolated from disinfected drinking water.

Chemical classes of nitrogen-containing DBPs, such as the haloacetonitriles and haloacetamides, appear to be the major forcing agents of toxicity in these samples. These findings may have important implications for the design of epidemiological studies that primarily rely on the levels of THMs to define DBP exposure among populations. The TIC-Tox approach constitutes a beginning step in the process of identifying the forcing agents of toxicity in disinfected water.

Regulated and unregulated halogenated disinfection byproduct formation from chlorination of saline groundwater Water Res. Szczuka, Aleksandra; Parker, Kimberly M. Groundwater from North Carolina coastal aquifers is characterized by large variations in concns. Formation of 33 regulated and unregulated halogenated DBPs, including trihalomethanes THMs , haloacetic acids HAAs , haloacetonitriles, haloacetamides, and haloacetaldehydes, was measured after simulated chlorination of 24 coastal North Carolina groundwater samples under typical chlorination conditions. Results of chlorination simulation show that THM levels exceeded the Primary Maximum Contaminant Levels in half of the chlorinated samples.

DBP speciation, but not overall molar formation, was strongly correlated with bromide variations in the groundwater. When measured concns. For some samples exhibiting elevated ammonia concns. HAAs dominated the calcd. However, we show that in a case where reverse osmosis permeate is blended with a sep. N-nitrosamines and halogenated disinfection byproducts in U. Full Advanced Treatment trains for potable reuse.

Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Formation, Analysis, and Control - CRC Press Book

Water utilities are increasingly considering indirect and direct potable reuse of municipal wastewater effluents. Disinfection byproducts DBPs , particularly N-nitrosamines, are key contaminants of potential health concern for potable reuse. This study quantified the concns. Ozonation promoted the formation of N-nitrosamines, haloacetaldehydes, and haloacetamides, but biol. Application of chloramines upstream of microfiltration for biofouling control increased DBP concns.

Reverse osmosis rejected DBPs to varying degrees, ranging from low for some e. UV-based advanced oxidn. Chloramination of the treatment train product waters under simulated distribution system conditions formed addnl. DBPs, with concns. Overall, the concn.

Weighting DBP concns. Progressive increase in disinfection byproducts and mutagenicity from source to tap to swimming pool and spa water: impacts of human inputs Environ.


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Daiber, Eric J. Pools and spas are enjoyed throughout the world for exercise and relaxation. However, there are no previous studies on mutagenicity of disinfected spa hot tub waters or comprehensive identification of disinfection byproducts DBPs formed in spas. Using 28 water samples from seven sites, we report the first integrated mutagenicity and comprehensive anal.

Gas chromatog. GC with high-resoln. Mutagenicity was assessed by the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Pool and spa samples were 2. The concn. Mutagenic potencies of samples from a chlorinated site correlated best with brominated haloacetic acid concns. Human use increased significantly the DBP concns. These data provide evidence that human precursors can increase mutagenic potencies of pools and spas and that this increase is assocd. Jeong, Clara H. This study focused on the relation of the occurrence and concn.

Eleven drinking water samples were collected from 5 European countries. Each sampling location corresponded with an epidemiol. Over 90 DBPs were identified; the range in the no. For each sampling site, chronic mammalian cell cytotoxicity correlated highly with the nos. Although there was a clear difference in the genotoxic responses among the drinking waters, these data did not correlate as well with the chem. Thus, the agents responsible for the genomic DNA damage obsd. This study represents the 1st to integrate quant. Selective chlorination of natural organic matter: identification of previously unknown disinfection byproducts Environ.

Lavonen, Elin E.

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Natural org. We identified mol. In total, DBPs were detected, of which have not been reported earlier. C oxidn. Electrophilic substitution, the proposed most significant reaction pathway for chlorination of NOM, results in C oxidn. Choice of disinfectant, dose, and predisinfection treatment at the different WTPs resulted in distinct patterns in the occurrence of DBP formulas. Changes in dissolved organic matter during the treatment processes of a drinking water treatment plant in Sweden and formation of previously unknown disinfection byproducts Environ.

The changes in dissolved org. Mass spectrometric results revealed that flocculation induced substantial changes in the DOM and caused quant. These mols. Other halogen-contg. This study underlines the fact that a large and increasing no. Nontarget anal. Formation and decomposition of new and unknown polar brominated disinfection byproducts during chlorination Environ. Brominated disinfection byproducts Br-DBPs are generally more cytotoxic and genotoxic than their chlorinated analogs.

A great portion of total org. In this work, a novel approach, precursor ion scan using ultra-performance liq. Simulated drinking water samples with chlorine contact times from 1 min to 7 d were analyzed. Many new polar arom. Br-DBPs were detected and tentatively proposed with chem. It was found that various polar Br-DBPs formed and reached the max. Br-DBPs might undergo decompn. Br-DBPs or even finally to haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes. The decompn. Four groups of new aromatic halogenated disinfection byproducts: effect of bromide concentration on their formation and speciation in chlorinated drinking water Environ.

Bromide is naturally present in source waters worldwide. Chlorination of drinking water can generate a variety of chlorinated and brominated disinfection byproducts DBPs. Although substantial efforts have been made to examine the effect of bromide concn. Chlorinated drinking water samples with different bromide concns. With this approach, 11 new putative arom.

A mechanism for the formation of the 4 groups of new arom. It was found that increasing the bromide concn. The speciation of the 4 groups of new DBPs was modeled: the speciation patterns of the 4 groups of new DBPs well matched those detd. Precursors of halobenzoquinones and their removal during drinking water treatment processes Environ. The levels of HBQ precursors were detd. HBQ precursors were present in all plant influents.

Coagulation removed dissolved org. The results demonstrated that the combined treatments did not substantially reduce HBQ precursor levels in water. Note: You clicked on an external link, which has been disabled in order to keep your shopping session open. Search Thermo Fisher Scientific. Search All. Disinfection Byproducts Analysis.

See Navigation. What are disinfection byproducts? On this page, you will find: How disinfection byproducts are produced Health effects of disinfection byproducts Which disinfection byproducts are regulated? US EPA methods for disinfection byproducts analysis. Inorganic Disinfection Byproducts and Bromide Analysis Inorganic disinfection byproducts include chlorite, chlorate, and bromate, which are also referred to as oxyhalides or DBP anions.

Haloacetic Acids Analysis Haloacetic acids HAAs , which are found to increase the risk for cancer, are disinfection byproducts DBPs generated during the water chlorination process. How disinfection byproducts are produced. Health effects of disinfection byproducts. Increased risk of cancer. Reduced ability of red blood cells to carry O 2. Chlorine dioxide Chlorate Chlorite Reduced ability of red blood cells to carry O 2.

Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Formation, Analysis, and Control Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Formation, Analysis, and Control
Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Formation, Analysis, and Control Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Formation, Analysis, and Control
Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Formation, Analysis, and Control Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Formation, Analysis, and Control
Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Formation, Analysis, and Control Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Formation, Analysis, and Control
Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Formation, Analysis, and Control Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Formation, Analysis, and Control
Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Formation, Analysis, and Control Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Formation, Analysis, and Control
Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Formation, Analysis, and Control Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Formation, Analysis, and Control

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